Abstract： Objective:To explore the correlation between sedentary behavior (SB), physical activity and abdominal obesity.Methods:Adults aged 18 to 65 years who underwent physical examination in the Health Management Center of Xiangya Hospital, Central South University from October 2017 to February 2019 were retrospectively included and their lifestyle questionnaires were collected. The subjects were divided into four groups, according to different combinations of sitting time and the time spent on moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA): SB≤6 h/d, MVPA≥150 min/w;SB≤6 h/d, MVPA<150 min/w;SB>6 h/d, MVPA≥150 min/w;SB>6 h/d, MVPA<150 min/w. The relative risk of abdominal obesity for each SB-MVPA combination was calculated.Results:A total of 5, 789 physical examination subjects were included in the study, with an abdominal obesity rate of 28.52%. People with abdominal obesity were older, had a lower level of education and a higher marriage rate, smoked more, consumed less fruit, slept less, and sat more (all P<0.05) compared with normal control. After adjusting for possible confounding factors, the risk of abdominal obesity was increased in the SB>6 h/d, MVPA<150 min/w group ( OR=1.379, 95% CI: 1.111-1.711). The results of the combined analysis of the occupational SB(W) and the MVPA showed an increased risk of abdominal obesity in the SB(W) ≤6 h/d, MVPA<150 min/w group ( OR=1.270, 95% CI: 1.047-1.541), as well as in the SB(W)>6 h/d, MVPA<150 min/w group ( OR=1.256, 95% CI: 1.043-1.513), after adjusting for possible confounding factors. Conclusion:Lack of physical activity, as well as sedentary behavior are associated with an increased risk of abdominal obesity. For the working population, sufficient MVPA can effectively decrease the risk of abdominal obesity caused by occupational sedentary behavior.