Abstract： Objective To explore the correlation between the apheresis platelet transfusion resistance (PTR) and platelet antibody of the patients suffering from hematological diseases (HD). Methods In the light of the corrected count increment(CCI), the effect of platelet transfusion among 207 cases patients who suffered from HD were observed, then the platelet antibody were detected by the use of SEPSA(simplified sensitized erythrocyte platelet serology assay) and counting the occurrence of PTR and positive rate of platelet antibody. The patients were divided into positive platelet antibody group and negative platelet antibody group. The effects of platelet transfusion, 1 hCCI values and 24 hCCI values in two groups were compared. Results The PTR rate was 43.0% and positive rate of platelet antibody was 37.2% The PTR rates in positive platelet antibody group and negative platelet antibody group were absolutely different, which had statistical significance, (P＜ 0. 01).The 1 hCCI and 24 hCCI values in the positive platelet antibody group was obviously lower than those in the negative platelet antibody group, which also had statistical significance, (P＜ 0. 01). Conclusion When the apheresis platelets transfusion is conducted on the HD patients, the platelet antibody detection and platelet typing for positive platelet antibody patients should be made, so as to effectively prevent the occurrence of immune platelet transfusion resistance.