Abstract： Objective:To analyze the clinical characteristics and evaluate the effect and safety of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in Sichuan province.Methods:A retrospective study. From January 2013 to January 2022, 156 patients (306 eyes) with ROP who received intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy for the first time in the Department of Ophthalmology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University were selected. According to the type of anti-VEGF drugs, the children were divided into intravitreal injection of ranibizumab (IVR) group and intravitreal injection of conbercept (IVC) group; IVC group was divided into hospital group and referral group according to the different paths of patients. After treatment, the patients were followed up until the disease degenerated (vascular degeneration or complete retinal vascularization) or were hospitalized again for at least 6 months. If the disease recurred or progressed, the patients were re-admitted to the hospital and received anti-VEGF drug treatment, laser treatment or surgical treatment according to the severity of the disease. Clinical data of these children was collected, including general clinical characteristics: gender, gestational age at birth (GA), birth weight (BW), history of oxygen inhalation; pathological condition: ROP stage, zone, whether there were plus lesions; treatment: treatment time, postmenstrual gestational age at the time of the first anti-VEGF drug treatment; prognosis: re-treat or not, time of re-treatment, mode of re-treatment; adverse events: corneal edema, lens opacity, endophthalmitis, retinal injury, and treatment-related systemic adverse reactions. The measurement data between groups were compared by t test, and the count data were compared by χ2 test or rank sum test. Results:Of the 306 eyes of 156 children with ROP, 74 were male (47.44%, 74/156) and 82 were female (52.56%, 82/156). Each included child had a history of oxygen inhalation at birth. The GA was (28.43±2.19) (23.86-36.57) weeks, BW was (1 129±335) (510-2 600) g, and the postmenstrual gestational age was (39.80±3.04) (31.71-49.71) weeks at the time of the first anti-VEGF drug treatment. All patients were diagnosed as type 1 ROP, including 26 eyes (8.50%, 26/306) of aggressive ROP (A-ROP), 39 eyes (12.74%, 39/306) of zone Ⅰ lesions, and 241 eyes (78.76%, 241/306) of zone Ⅱ lesions. The children were treated with intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF drugs within 72 hours after diagnosis. Among them, 134 eyes (43.79%, 134/306) of 68 patients were treated with IVR, and 172 eyes (56.21%, 172/306) of 88 patients were treated with IVC. In IVC group, 67 eyes of 34 patients (38.95%, 67/172) were in the hospital group and 105 eyes of 54 patients (61.05%, 105/172) were in the referral group. 279 eyes (91.18%, 279/306) were improved after one treatment, 15 eyes (4.90%, 15/306) were improved after two treatments, and 12 eyes (3.92%, 12/306) were improved after three treatments. The one-time cure rate of IVR group was lower than that of IVC group, but the difference was not statistically significant ( χ2=1.665, P=0.197). In different ROP categories, IVC showed better therapeutic effect in A-ROP, and its one-time cure rate was higher than that in IVR group, with statistically significant difference ( χ2=7.797, P<0.05). In the hospital group of IVC group, the GA, BW and the postmenstrual gestational age at first time of anti-VEGF drug treatment were lower than those in the referral group, and the difference was statistically significant ( t=-2.485, -2.940, -3.796; P<0.05). The one-time cure rate of the hospital group and the referral group were 94.94%, 92.38%, respectively. The one-time cure rate of the hospital group was slightly higher than that of the referral group, but the difference was not statistically significant ( χ2=0.171, P=0.679). In this study, there were no ocular and systemic adverse reactions related to drug or intravitreal injection in children after treatment. Conclusions:Compared with the characteristics of ROP in developed countries, the GA, BW and postmenstrual gestational age of the children in Sichuan province are higher. Both IVR and IVC can treat ROP safely and effectively. There is no significant difference between the two drugs in the overall one-time cure effect of ROP, but IVC performed better in the treatment of A-ROP in this study.