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Clinical characteristics and outcome of aortic dissection in nine pregnant women with pre-eclampsia

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Journal Title:
Chinese Journal of Perinatal Medicine
Key Word:
子痫前期;动脉瘤,夹层;妊娠结局;Pre-eclampsia;Aneurysm, dissecting;Pregnancy outcome

Abstract´╝Ü Objective:To investigate the clinical characteristics, management and outcome of aortic dissection (AD) in pregnant women with pre-eclampsia.Methods:Clinical characteristics, management, and prognosis of nine patients with pre-eclampsia complicated by AD who were admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from January 2013 to April 2021 were retrospectively summarized using descriptive statistical analysis.Results:(1) Clinical features: The incidence of pre-eclampsia complicated by AD among the total deliveries and pre-eclampsia deliveries were 18/100 000 (9/49 166) and 182/100 000 (9/4 943), respectively. All the nine cases of pre-eclampsia complicated by AD, with an average age of (36.6±4.2) years, presented clinical symptoms in the second or the third trimester that were mainly manifested as chest and back pain (8/9) and the average gestational week at onset was (31.0±4.7) weeks. Seven cases were confirmed by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and computed tomography angiography (CTA), one by TTE and magnetic resonance angiography, and one by TTE+MRI+CTA. The main classification of AD was Stanford B (8/9). In the grading of blood pressure during pregnancy, except for one case without data, eight cases were severe. (2) Management: Four women did not receive any antihypertensive treatment. However, blood pressure remained uncontrolled in the other five cases despite antihypertensive managment. Except for one death before operation due to rapid deterioration, the other eight cases all received initial treatment and thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). Four cases underwent TEVAR prior to the termination of pregnancy. Two cases were delivered by cesarean section first, and TEVAR was performed 5 and 6 days after delivery, respectively. The other two cases undenwent cesarean section and TEVAR at the same time. Lung infection ( n=6) was the main postoperative complication. (3) Delivery: Among the nine patients, one patient died, and the average termination time of the eight patients (six underwent cesarean section, including two cases with fetal death, two underwent vaginal delivery following fetal death) was (32.9±3.6) weeks and none of them had postpartum hemorrhage. (4) Maternal-infant outcomes: Follow-up of the eight surviving women showed that one had numbness in one side of the limbs, one with occasional heart palpitations, and the rest had good outcomes. There were four live births, including two with low birth weight and one with neonatal asphyxia, and five stillbirths. During the 7-83 months of follow-up, all four children grew well. Conclusions:Pregnant women with pre-eclampsia should actively control blood pressure to avoid AD. Once symptoms such as chest and back pain occur, the possibility of AD should be considered. Active treatment after diagnosis of AD can improve maternal and fetal survival rate.

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