Abstract： Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection causes severe systemic immune system damage and ultimately leads to patient death. Despite the success of anti-retroviral therapy (ART), which can effectively supress viral replication, there is currently no cure for HIV infection, which requires lifelong treatment. Due to the presence of HIV latent reservoir, the virus persists during antiretroviral treatment. "Shock and Kill" is currently one of the most recognized strategies for removing HIV latent reservoir. The solution is mainly to reactivate viral transcription by using latency-reversing agents (LRAs), which triggers cell lysis or immune-mediated clearance to kill the reactivated HIV infected cells and achieve functional cure. This article gives an overview of current research progress on HIV LRAs and their mechanism of action.