Abstract： Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) can cause various opportunistic infections clinically due to severe defects in the body’s cellular immune function. Cryptococcosis is a common serious opportunistic infection in AIDS patients. With the promotion and popularization of high activity antiretroviral therapy (HAART) programs worldwide, the mortality rate of AIDS-related cryptococcosis has been significantly decreased. After initiating antiviral therapy, some patients experienced recurrence and aggravation of clinical symptoms during anti-cryptococcal treatment. The body has an inflammatory response to the excessive immune regulation of cryptococcal antigens, which is called cryptococcus-related immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (C-IRIS). C-IRIS seriously affects the quality of life and prognosis of patients. This article reviews the clinical features, pathogenesis and the latest treatment and management strategies of C-IRIS in AIDS patients.