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Three-dimensional analysis of maxillary dentition during molar distalization with clear aligners under different movement designs: an in vitro experiment

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Journal Title:
Chinese Journal of Stomatology
Key Word:
正畸矫正器设计;正畸学;力学;应力,物理;牙移动;透明矫治器;磨牙远中移动;Orthodontic appliance design;Orthodontics;Mechanics;Stress, mechanical;Tooth movement;Clear aligner;Molars distalization

Abstract´╝Ü Objective:To investigate the three-dimensional force in the maxillary dentition under different movement designs for molar distalization with clear aligners.Methods:Three groups were designed: simultaneous movement group (simultaneous distalization of maxillary first and second molars), second molar movement group (distalization of maxillary second molars) and first molar movement group (distalization of maxillary first molars). Ten clear aligners were made in each group, and the displacement was designed to be 0.2 mm. A force sensing device was established to measure the three-dimensional force on the upper dentition with the clear aligner. The device contained a model of the maxillary dentition consisting of 14 teeth, each tooth connected to an individual sensor. After the clear aligner was fitted, the data of 14 sensors were collected and analyzed using computer analysis software. The moving teeth were taken as the target teeth, and the rest of the teeth were anchorage. The data of the three-dimensional force in the three groups in each tooth position were measured and compared.Results:The sagittal forces on the first and second molars in the simultaneous movement group were (5.61±0.94) and (5.81±1.08) N, respectively, which were significantly smaller than those of the target teeth in the same position in other groups ( P<0.05). The second molars in the first molar movement group received a sagittal reaction force, which was (-6.73±1.99) N. The anterior teeth in the three groups were all subjected to sagittal reaction force, and the force value decreased from the canines to the central incisors. In the coronal direction, the second premolars of the simultaneous movement group received the reaction force in the palatal direction, and the force value was (-2.17±1.06) N. The first molars in the second molar movement group were also subjected to palatal reaction force of (-1.99±0.70) N. The second molars and second premolars in the first molar movement group were also subjected to palatal reaction force, which were (-2.85±0.57) and (-1.85±0.74) N, respectively. Compared with the sagittal and coronal forces, the target teeth and anchorage teeth in the three groups were less stressed in the vertical direction. Conclusions:The first and second molars distalized simultaneously, the correction force in the sagittal direction was relatively small. When first molar was moved distally alone, a greater reaction force in the sagittal direction was exerted on the second molar. Buccal displacement of the adjacent anchorage teeth should be designed to counteract the palatal reaction force on the anchorage teeth as the molars moved distally.

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