Abstract： Objective:To analyze the health fitness and its influencing factors among urban elderly residents in Lanzhou city.Methods:A multi-stage sampling method was used to survey urban elderly residents in Lanzhou city with self-designed questionnaire from July 17th to August 3rd, 2020. The questionnaire included general information, life habits and Healthy Fitness Measurement Scale Version 1.0 (HFMS V 1.0), a total of 1 124 questionnaires were distributed and 1 124 were collected, including 1 043 valid questionnaires (92.8%). The HFMS V 1.0 was scored with Likert 5-point scale, positive and negative scoring method. The health fitness status of the subjects was divided into low, medium and high levels according to the norms of HFMS V 1.0 for Chinese urban elderly residents. The influencing factors were analyzed by using the chi-square test and ordinal logistic regression.Results:The conversion score of HFMS V 1.0 for the urban elderly residents in Lanzhou city was 61.99±14.20, and the physical fitness score was the lowest (57.84±16.98); of the 1 043 subjects, 332 (31.83%), 360 (34.52%) and 351 (33.65%) subjects were classified with low, medium, and high health fitness levels, respectively. Chronic diseases and poor dietary habits were the risk factors for the health fitness of urban elderly residents in Lanzhou city (both P<0.05); more adequate sun exposure, physical exercise, sufficient sleep, high self-health concern and high frustration quotient were protective factors for health fitness in those subjects (all P<0.05). Conclusion:The overall level of health fitness in urban elderly residents in Lanzhou city is moderate, and chronic disease, dietary habits, sun exposure, physical exercise, length of sleep, self-health concern and frustration quotient are the main influencing factors.