Abstract： Objective:To assess the association between blood pressure and the risks of diabetes mellitus.Methods:Screening and intervention were conducted from 2015 to 2019 for high-risk subjects of cardiovascular diseases in eight counties of Henan. Information on demographic characteristics, lifestyle behaviors, and anthropometric measurements were obtained via a questionnaire. Fasting blood samples were collected for blood glucose and serum lipids. The R 3.6.3 software was used to analyze the relationship between blood pressure and diabetes mellitus.Results:The detection rate of diabetes mellitus was 23.5% among 120 040 participants aged 35-75 years. The mean fasting blood glucose level was significantly different among normotensive, prehypertensive, and hypertensive patients. Compared to normotensive patients, prehypertension and hypertension had adjusted ORs of 34%( OR=1.34, 95 CI%: 1.30-1.37) and 85%( OR=1.85, 95 CI%: 1.81-1.89). The corresponding ORs were 1.81(1.77-1.85) in controlled and 2.17(2.06-2.28) in uncontrolled patients. A subgroup analysis showed the same trend, where the risk of diabetes increased with blood pressure ( P<0.05). Conclusions:People with elevated BP may increase their risk of diabetes, while the risk declines when BP is under control. Therefore, targeted measures should be taken to reduce the risk.