Abstract： Objective To assess the awareness of nutrition issues among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and to find effective nutrition education models. Methods According to cluster random sampling method,256 T2DM patients from 2 hospitals in Zhengzhou City were enrolled and randomly assigned to the study or control group. The participants in the study group received traditional nutrition education and real object-based diabetic diet guidance, and those in the control group received traditional nutrition education only. Awareness about nutrition and blood glucose levels were compared between the two groups by using independent t test and Chi-square test Results After the intervention, the study group showed significantly higher nutrition scores ( 86. 5 ± 3.8 vs 71.5 ± 4. 6, P ＜ 0. 05 ) and lower 2 h postprandial glucose level ( ( 9. 15 ± 1.06 ) mmol/L vs ( 11.32 ± 0. 84) mmol/L, P ＜ 0. 05 ). Conclusion Real object-based diabetic diet teaching could foster the awareness in nutrition and decrease postprandial blood glucose level in T2DM patients.