Abstract： Objective:Against a background of currently lacking masculinity among high school students in China and there is no effective corresponding counter-measurement，this study aims to investigate the effect of anti-load physical training on improving the masculinity of high school students.Methods:A total of 127 students from two Naval Junior Aviation Schools in different cities were selected and divided into control group and two experimental groups. The control group（40 students）was given a 14-week routine physical training intervention，while the two experimental groups were given a 14-week new anti-load physical training intervention. However，due to the different schedules of the two schools，the weekly duration of anti-load physical training intervention in experimental group one（40 students）was 390 min，while that in experimental group two（47 students）was 295 min. Before and after the intervention，the subjective and objective indicators of masculinity in the experimental groups and the control group were analyzed and compared.Results:After the intervention，the average content of testosterone in the saliva of the students in the two experimental groups were significantly increased. After intervention，the mean salivary testosterone content of the experimental group one（243.88 ± 25.31）pmol/L and the experimental group two（208.10 ± 25.01）pmol/L were different from those of the experimental group one（161.72 ± 28.10）pmol/L and the experimental group two（193.28 ± 25.13）pmol/L at baseline，the difference was statistically significant（ P<0.05）. There was no significant difference in the mean salivary testosterone content of the control group between post-test（203.21 ± 25.39）pmol/L and pre-test（203.48 ± 27.85）pmol/L（ P>0.05）. After the intervention，the masculinity questionnaire score of the experimental group one showed an upward trend compared with that before the intervention，and the control group showed a downward trend after the intervention，but the differences were not statistically significant（ P>0.05）. Either the difference between the pre-test and post-test of the mean salivary testosterone content of the experimental group one（82.16 ± 35.20）pmol/L and the experimental group two（14.82 ± 9.57）pmol/L，or the difference between the pre-test and post-test scores of the masculinity questionnaire in the experimental group one（2.44 ± 18.21）and the experimental group two（-4.91 ± 11.93），the differences were all statistically significant（ P<0.05）. Conclusion:The new type of anti-load physical training has a certain promotion effect on improving the masculinity of Naval Junior Aviation School students. The duration of resistance training and high-intensity training may be the main factors affecting the improvement effect.