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Effect of T helper 1 to T helper 2 ratio on the prognosis of patients with multiple myeloma

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Journal Title:
Journal of Leukemia and Lymphoma
Key Word:
多发性骨髓瘤;Th1细胞;Th2细胞;预后;Multiple myeloma;Th1 cells;Th2 cells;Prognosis

Abstract´╝Ü Objective:To investigate the effect of T helper 1 (Th1) to T helper 2 (Th2) ratio (Th1/Th2) on the prognosis of patients with multiple myeloma (MM).Methods:The clinical data of 168 MM patients who were newly diagnosed in the Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School from January 2016 to January 2021 were retrospectively analyzed. Disease staging was defined according to the Chinese guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of MM (2020 edition). Risk stratification was based on the Mayo stratification of myeloma and risk-adapted therapy (mSMART) 3.0. The levels of Th1 and Th2 in peripheral blood of patients were detected by flow cytometry. Th1/Th2 was compared among patients with different disease staging and risk stratification. Using mSMART 3.0 risk stratification as the gold standard, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine the optimal cut-off value of Th1/Th2 for determining high-risk MM. According to the optimal cut-off value, patients were divided into high Th1/Th2 group (≥ optimal cut-off value) and low Th1/Th2 group (< optimal cut-off value). The progression-free survival (PFS) of the two groups was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards model was used to analyze the influencing factors of PFS.Results:There were 40, 62 and 66 patients with international staging system (ISS) stages Ⅰ, Ⅱ and Ⅲ, respectively, with Th1/Th2 [ M ( IQR)] of 19.20 (18.98), 15.93 (14.40) and 14.47 (12.01), respectively ( H = 6.68, P = 0.036). There were 31,102 and 35 patients with revised international staging system (R-ISS) stages Ⅰ, Ⅱ and Ⅲ, respectively, with Th1/Th2 of 19.67 (21.92), 14.87 (11.36) and 13.50 (12.80), respectively ( H = 7.26, P = 0.027). There were 99 and 69 patients with mSMART 3.0 high-risk and standard-risk, respectively, and the Th1/Th2 of high-risk patients was lower than that of the standard-risk patients [14.70 (11.93) vs. 17.72 (16.80), U = 2 612.00, P = 0.009]. ROC curve analysis showed that the area under the curve for Th1/Th2 to determine high-risk MM was 0.618 (95% CI 0.531-0.705, P = 0.010), and the optimal cut-off value was 16.55 and there were 81 and 87 cases in the high Th1/Th2 group and low Th1/Th2 group. With a median follow-up of 28 months (1-70 months), the median PFS time for all patients was 36 months (95% CI 29-43 months); PFS in high Th1/Th2 group was better than that in low Th1/Th2 group [median PFS time: 39 months (95% CI 26-51 months) vs. 28 months (95% CI 21-34 months), P = 0.040]. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that renal impairment (with vs. without: HR = 2.340, 95% CI 1.350-4.053, P = 0.002) and low Th1/Th2 (high vs. low: HR = 0.551, 95% CI 0.344-0.882, P = 0.013) were independent risk factors for PFS in MM patients. Conclusions:The imbalance between Th1 and Th2 is associated with the prognosis of MM patients, and patients with low Th1/Th2 are at high risk of progression. Th1/Th2 can be used as a prognostic indicator for MM.

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