Objective To investigate the clinical factors influencing the treatment efficacy of microsurgery on patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Methods One hundred and eleven patients,admitted to our hospitals from January 1,2003 to December 31,2009 and underwent microsurgical cerebral AVMs resection were chosen in our study; their clinical data were retrospectively analyzed.The functional neurological status was classified with modified Rankin scale 7 d and 6 months after surgery. Binary logistic regression models were applied to test the effect of patient gender, age,intra-cerebral hemorrhage,and the size,deep venous drainage pattern and location of AVMs on long-term and short-term treatment efficacy. Results Twenty-nine patients (26.1％) showed new neurological deficits 7 d after the surgery.Univariate analysis and multivariate analysis demonstrated that deep venous drainage, eloquent location and large size of AVMs, high Spetzler-Martin grading aneurysms and no intra-cerebral hemorrhage were significantly associated with new early neurological deficits (P＜0.05),while gender and age of the patients had no significant association with new early neurological deficits (P＞0.05).The scores of neurological status scale in patients with Spetzler-Martin grading Ⅰ,Ⅱ and Ⅲ were significantly different between 7 d and 6 months after the surgery (P＜0.05). Conclusion AVMs patients having deep venous drainage,eloquent location and large size of AVMs,and having aneurysm and intra-cerebral hemorrhage may be the risk factors of new early neurological deficit after microsurgical resection; analyzing the Spetzler-Martin grading before surgery can help to determine the treatment options.