Characteristics of inflammatory response in rabbits having limb blast injury coupled with hypothermia induced by seawater immersion following rewarming and maintenance of light hypothermia

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Author:
MA Yong-da(Department of Anesthesiology, Research Institute of Field Surgery, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University,Chongqing 400042, China)
LAI Xi-nan(Department of Anesthesiology, Research Institute of Field Surgery, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University,Chongqing 400042, China)
GE Heng-Jiang(Department of Anesthesiology, Research Institute of Field Surgery, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University,Chongqing 400042, China)
Chen Yi(Department of Anesthesiology, Research Institute of Field Surgery, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University,Chongqing 400042, China)
TANG Xiao-feng(Department of Anesthesiology, Research Institute of Field Surgery, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University,Chongqing 400042, China)
HANG Jie(Department of Anesthesiology, Research Institute of Field Surgery, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University,Chongqing 400042, China)
WANG Li-li(Department of Anesthesiology, Research Institute of Field Surgery, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University,Chongqing 400042, China)
Journal Title:
CHINESE JOURNAL OF NAUTICAL MEDICINE AND HYPERBARIC MEDICINE
Issue:
Volume 16, Issue 02, 2009
DOI:
10.3760/cma.j.issn.1009-6906.2009.02.002
Key Word:
Rewarming rate;Seawater immersion;Hypothermia;Inflammatory response

Abstract: Objective To investigate effects of different rewarming rates and maintenance of light hypothermia on inflammatory response in rabbits after limb blast injury, coupled with seawater immersion. Methods First, the model of limb blast injury coupled with seawater immersion was reproduced [the animals were immersed to low body temperature of (31.0±0.5℃)]. Then, 24 adult rabbits were randomly divided into group Ⅰ [the rapid rewarming group, n=6, rewarmed to (38±0.5)℃ at a rate of (8.94±0.93)℃/h], group Ⅱ [the slow rewarming group, n=6, rewarmed to (38±0.5)℃ at a rate of (3.88±0.22)℃/h], group Ⅲ [another slow rewarming group, n=6, rewarmed to (38±0.5)℃ at a rate of (2.18±0.12)℃/h], and the H group [the hypothermia group, n =6, rewarmed to (34 - 35)℃ at a rate of (4.49±0.66)℃/h and kept at that temperature till termination of the experiment]. Regulation of ambient temperature and warm transfusion were used to restore body temperature to target levels and maintained there for 6 hours. Blood samples were taken at 5 different times, I.e. Pre-injury time(T0), post-immersion time (T1), the time when rewarming started (T2), 3 h after rewarming (T3), and 6 h after rewarming (T4). Tissue samples from heart, liver, intestinum, lung and kidney were also collected. Levels of TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α), IL-1β (interleukin-1β) and IL-6 (interleukin-6) in plasma and MPO (myeloperoxidase) in homogenate were detected. Results Following rewarming, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 concentrations in the plasma of the animals in group Ⅰ and group H were significantly higher when compared with those of the animals in group Ⅱ and group Ⅲ (P<0.05, P<0.01), and MPO activity in homogenate was significantly higher when compared with that of the animals in group Ⅱ and group Ⅲ(P<0.01, P<0.05), and no statistical difference could be seen between group Ⅱ and Ⅲ (P>0.05). Conclusions Rapid rewarming and maintenance of light hypothermia could obviously elevate TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 concentrations in plasma and MPO activity in homogenate, following limb blast injury coupled with hypothermia induced by seawater immersion, while slow rewarming (with a rewarming rate of 2-4℃/h) could significantly inhibit TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 levels and PMN activity.

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