Objective To observe the curative efects of never growth factor (NGF)on neonates with moderate and severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Methods Eighty-six neonates with HIE were randomly divided into NGF treatment group and control group. The control group (42 cases)were received routine treatment (including cerebrolysin and citicoline) ;the treatment group (44 cages)were given NGF on the basis of routine treatment as early as possible (within 6 hours after birth). Brain CT, neonatal behavioral neuro-logical assessment(NBNA) and children' s development center of China(CDCC) at 3 and 6 months after birth were proformed in both groups. Results Brain CT, NBNA and CDCC markers in treatment group were better than those in control group (P＜ 0. 05). There were great diferences between two groups (P＜ 0. 01). Conclusion Using NGF on the basis of the routine treatment as early as possible after resuscitation can reduce markely the severity of asphyxia induced brain damage in neonates. It is very effective using NGF in treating HIE in neonates.