Objective To describe of central venous catheter instead of Thoracic Surgical treatment of pleural effusion and cancer. Methods 100 patients with pleural effusion in our hospital inpatients were randomly divided into two groups :50 patients to the treatment of central venous catheter drainage pleural effusion.Control group of 50 patients to conventional chest Surgical treatment of pleural effusion. Two groups of patients and clinical effect of treatment were summarized. Results The treatment group (50 cases)27 cases of complete absorption of 54%, some 22% absorption in 11 cases, 6 cases did not change in 12% , 12% progress in 6 cases. The control group(50 cases)16 cases of complete absorption of 32% , some 26% absorption in 13 cases,no change in 10 cases, 20%, 22% progress in 11 cases. Conclusion Central venous catheter instead of Thoracic Surgical treatment of pleural effusion in the patients tolerated the procedures are simple, suitable for the treatment of patients with pleural effusion, suitable for clinical application.