Melasma: the imbalance between epidermal barrier and melanin barrier

( views:445, downloads:0 )
Author:
SONG Xiu-zu(Department of Dermatology, Third People’s Hospital of Hangzhou, Hangzhou 310009, China)
XU Ai-e(Department of Dermatology, Third People’s Hospital of Hangzhou, Hangzhou 310009, China)
Journal Title:
International Journal of Dermatology and Venereology
Issue:
Volume 38, Issue 05, 2012
DOI:
10.3760/cma.j.issn.1673-4173.2012.05.013
Key Word:
Chloasma; Epidermal barrier; Melanocytes

Abstract: Melasma is an acquired skin disease characterized by facial hyperpigmentation of unclear pathogenesis.This paper describes the changes of epidermal barrier,melanin barrier and dermal blood vessels in melasma.On this basis,the pathogenesis of melasma is speculated to be associated with ultraviolet,cosmetics,contraceptives and other adverse stimuli,which cause epidermal barrier dysfunction,lead to a compensatory increase in melanocyte activity and melanin barrier followed by the occurrence of diseases characterized by skin pigmentation.Moreover,dermal telangiectasis is induced and vascular endothelial growth factor expression is enhanced,which accelerate skin pigmentation accordingly.

  • [1]Gupta AK,Gove r MD,Nouri K,et al.The treatment of melasma:a review of clinical trials.J Am Acad Dermatol,2006,55(6):1048-1065.
  • [2]Zhou X,Gold MH,Lu Z,et al.Efficacy and safety of Q-switched 1,064-nm neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser treatment of melasma.Dermatol Surg,2011,37 (7):962-970.
  • [3]Ortonne JP,Arellano I,Berneburg M,et al.A global survey of the role of ultraviolet radiation and hormonal influences in the development of melasma.J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol,2009,23(11):1254-1262.
  • [4]Rawlings AV,Harding CR.Moisturization and skin barrier function.Dermatol Ther,2004,17 (Suppl 1):43-48.
  • [5]Kang HY,Suzuki I,Lee DJ,et al.Transcriptional profiling shows altered expression of wnt pathway-and lipid metabolism-related genes as well as melanogenesis-related genes in melasma.J Invest Dermatol,2011,131 (8):1692-1700.
  • [6]Groen D,Poole DS,Gooris GS,et al.Investigating the barrier function of skin lipid models with varying compositions.Eur J Pharm Biopharm,2011,79(2):334-342.
  • [7]Merle C,Laugel C,Baillet-Guffroy A.Effect of UVA or UVB irradiation on cutaneous lipids in films or in solution.Photochem Photobiol,2010,86(3):553-562.
  • [8]Trommer H,Platzer M,Wolf R,et al.Massspectrometric examinations of stratum corneum lipid models exposed to ultraviolet irradiation.Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol,2003,16(5):291-304.
  • [9]Hellemans L,Corstjens H,Neven A,et al.Antioxidant enzyme activity in human stratum eorneum shows seasonal variation with an age-dependent recovery.J Invest Dermatol,2003,120(3):434-439.
  • [10]Elias PM,Menon G,Wetzel BK,et al.Barrier requirements as the evolutionary "driver" of epidermal pigmentation in humans.Am J Hum Biol,2010,22(4):526-537.
  • [11]Gunathilake R,Schurer NY,Shoo BA,et al.pH-regulated mechanisms account for pigment-type differences in epidermal barrier function.J Invest Dermatol,2009,129(7):1719-1729.
  • [12]Grimes PE,Yamada N,Bhawan J.Light microscopic,immunohistochemical,and ultrastructural alterations in patients with melasma.Am J Dermatopathol,2005,27(2):96-101.
  • [13]Kang WH,Yoon KH,Lee ES,et al.Melasma:histopathological characteristics in 56 Korean patients.Br J Dermatol,2002,146(2):228-237.
  • [14]Kang HY,Bahadoran P,Suzuki I,et al.In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy detects pigmentary changes in melasma at a cellular level resolution.Exp Dermatol,2010,19(8):e228-233.
  • [15]Im S,Kim J,On WY,et al.Increased expression of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone in the lesional skin of melasma.Br J Dermatol,2002,146(1):165-167.
  • [16]Kang HY,Hwang JS,Lee JY,et al.The dermal stem cell factor and c-kit are overexpressed in melasma.Br J Dermatol,2006,154(6):1094-1099.
  • [17]Khemis A,Kaiafa A,Queille-Roussel C,et al.Evaluation of efficacy and safety of rucinol serum in patients with melasma:a randomized controlled trial.Br J Dermatol,2007,156 (5):997-1004.
  • [18]Kim EH,Kim YC,Lee ES,et al.The vascular characteristics of melasma.J Dermatol Sci,2007,46 (2):111-116.
  • [19]Kim EJ,Park HY,Yaar M,et al.Modulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors in melanocytes.Exp Dermatol,2005,14(8):625-633.
  • [20]Elias PM,Arbiser J,Brown BE,et al.Epidermal vascular endothelial growth factor production is required for permeability barrier homeostasis,dermal angiogenesis,and the development of epidermal hyperplasia:implications for the pathogenesis of psoriasis.Am J Pathol,2008,173(3):689-699.
  • [21]Passeron T,Fontas E,Kang HY,et al.Melasma treatment with pulsed-dye laser and triple combination cream:a prospective,randomized,single-blind,split-face study.Arch Dermatol,2011,147(9):1106-1108.
WanfangData CO.,Ltd All Rights Reserved
About WanfangData | Contact US
Healthcare Department, Fuxing Road NO.15, Haidian District Beijing, 100038 P.R.China
Tel:+86-010-58882616 Fax:+86-010-58882615 Email:yiyao@wanfangdata.com.cn